AC Milan are the most improved European team over the past 12 months, according to football analysts Gracenote.
Milan, who play reigning Italian champions Juventus on Wednesday, are top of Serie A, a point ahead of Inter Milan and 10 clear of Juve in fifth.
Southampton, 1-0 winners over Premier League champions Liverpool on Monday, are classed as the most improved side in England’s top flight.
Champions League holders Bayern Munich are top of the Euro Club Index.
The index, which rates teams on their domestic and European performances over the past four seasons, has Manchester City second, Liverpool third, with Barcelona fourth and Real Madrid fifth.
Milan, who finished sixth in Serie A in 2019-20, have jumped up from 47th in the index in January 2020 to 20th a year later.
Manchester United are rated the 10th best team in Europe, with Chelsea 13th, Tottenham 15th and Arsenal 17th, while Southampton have moved up from 57th a year ago to 37th.
Euro Club Index positions (as at 5 January 2021)
1. Bayern Munich, 2. Manchester City, 3. Liverpool, 4. Barcelona, 5. Real Madrid, 6. Atletico Madrid, 7. Paris St-Germain, 8. RB Leipzig, 9. Juventus, 10. Manchester United.
Selected others: 13. Chelsea, 15. Tottenham, 17. Arsenal, 26. Leicester, 32. Wolves, 34. Everton, 37. Southampton, 48. West Ham, 50. Rangers, 56. Burnley, 64. Aston Villa, 65. Crystal Palace, 67. Newcastle, 72. Celtic.